I think Vito Corleone of "The Godfather" is a good example of someone who took the name of their hometown as a new identity, to start a new life. (And perhaps - as was the case with Don Corleone - to avoid scandal or even worse trouble!)
With the recent passing of Gale Storm, I think we have another example from Toobworld itself of a character whose family took the name of their hometown for a new identity. Not that Gale Storm's character did it, but someone in the past from her husband's family.
In the "Something Borrowed, Someone Blue" episode of 'Murder, She Wrote', Gale Storm played Maisie Mayberry. She was the mother of Donna, who was going to marry Jessica Fletcher's nephew Grady.
Her husband was Franklin Mayberry and there was an Uncle Ben Mayberry there as well.
It's pozz'ble, just pozz'ble (as Mushrat would say), that the Mayberry clan was descended from a former resident of Mayberry, North Carolina, who was forced to leave his hometown and take an assumed name. Wanting to keep ties to his background, that ancestor chose "Mayberry" as his new moniker.
Nothing to prove that this is what happened, but there was nothing in the episode to dispute the theory either.....